AB 1366 Explained: How California is Advancing Consumer Protection Laws

AB 1366 Explained: How California is Advancing Consumer Protection Laws

California has taken a decisive step in enhancing consumer rights with the enactment of Assembly Bill 1366 (AB 1366). Authored by Assembly Member Brian Maienschein and sponsored by Attorney General Rob Bonta, this law, effective since January 1, 2024, establishes the Victims of Consumer Fraud Restitution Fund in the state Treasury. This fund is uniquely financed by the disgorged profits from businesses that breach consumer protection laws, ensuring victims receive due compensation.

Attorney General Rob Bonta underscored the law’s impact, stating, “With the signing of AB 1366, California is putting consumers first… AB 1366 is a game changer — it will allow my office to compensate victims using proceeds from predatory businesses’ misconduct.” Assembly Member Maienschein added, “It’s only right that proceeds from illegal conduct should compensate victims… AB 1366 ensures that victims will receive restitution for wrongdoings endured by crooked businesses.”

AB 1366 marks a critical advancement in safeguarding Californians against fraudulent business practices, ensuring that victims are not left uncompensated due to the financial failings of the offenders. This law not only offers a path to restitution but also acts as a deterrent, solidifying California’s ongoing commitment to protecting consumer interests.

The Genesis of AB 1366

The Need for Stronger Consumer Protection

In California, the challenge of adequately compensating victims of consumer fraud has been persistent. The state has seen cases where businesses, after engaging in deceptive practices, left victims uncompensated due to insolvency or closure. This situation brought to light the pressing need for stronger safeguards to ensure victims of consumer fraud are not left without recourse.

Historical Context and Challenges

The issue became more pronounced with high-profile cases where victims were left without restitution despite large judgments against fraudulent businesses. These cases clearly exposed a major flaw in our system for protecting consumers, especially in collecting financial penalties from businesses that simply vanish or go bankrupt after a lawsuit.

The Legislative Journey

Assembly Member Brian Maienschein introduced AB 1366 to address this gap. The bill proposed a restitution fund financed by the profits of businesses found guilty of consumer fraud. This approach aimed to ensure that restitution did not burden taxpayers or compliant businesses.

With Attorney General Rob Bonta’s sponsorship, the bill gained momentum, highlighting its focus on victim compensation. The final endorsement by Governor Gavin Newsom marked a significant step in California’s commitment to enhancing consumer protection laws.

The enactment of AB 1366 reflects California’s active approach to improving consumer rights and sets a practical example for addressing consumer protection challenges.

Key Provisions of AB 1366

AB 1366 introduces critical changes to California’s consumer protection landscape. Here are the key provisions:

Introduction of Section 12527.6 to the Government Code

  • Creation of a New Section: AB 1366 adds Section 12527.6 to the Government Code, marking a significant update in the legal framework.
  • Specific Focus: This new section is dedicated to addressing issues related to unfair competition and false advertising.

Focus on Unfair Competition and False Advertising: Legal Specifics

  • Unfair Competition: The law targets business practices deemed unlawful, unfair, or fraudulent, expanding the scope of what constitutes unfair competition.
  • False Advertising: It also addresses deceptive, untrue, or misleading advertising, providing a clearer legal definition and scope.
  • Civil Penalties: The law stipulates civil penalties for violations, with a focus on ensuring that these penalties are substantial and effective.
  • Disgorgement of Profits: A key feature is the disgorgement of profits obtained through illegal activities, which will fund the restitution to victims.
  • Restitution Fund: The establishment of the Victims of Consumer Fraud Restitution Fund, sourced from these disgorged profits, is a central element of the law.
  • Role of Public Officials: The law empowers public officials, particularly the Attorney General, to take decisive action against businesses violating these provisions.

These provisions collectively strengthen California’s stance against fraudulent business practices. By clearly defining unfair competition and false advertising, and establishing a mechanism for restitution, AB 1366 ensures that victims have a reliable avenue for compensation. The introduction of disgorgement of profits as a funding source for the restitution fund is a novel approach, ensuring that the financial burden of compensation does not fall on the state or compliant businesses.

The Role of Public Officials in AB 1366

AB 1366 significantly enhances the authority and responsibility of public officials, particularly the Attorney General, in safeguarding consumer rights. This section outlines their expanded role under the new law.

The Attorney General’s Authority in Combating Misleading Advertising Practices

  • Expanded Enforcement Powers: The Attorney General is granted broader powers to take action against businesses engaging in unfair competition and false advertising.
  • Disgorgement Authority: A key aspect of AB 1366 is the Attorney General’s ability to seek disgorgement, compelling businesses to relinquish profits gained from illegal activities.
  • Restitution for Victims: The Attorney General plays a crucial role in ensuring that victims receive restitution from the disgorged funds.

Enforcement Mechanisms

  • Civil Penalties: Public officials, including the Attorney General, can impose civil penalties of up to $2,500 per violation, serving as a deterrent against fraudulent practices.
  • Victims of Consumer Fraud Restitution Fund: The Attorney General oversees the allocation of funds from this newly established fund to compensate victims.
  • Regulatory Authority: AB 1366 authorizes the Attorney General to promulgate regulations to further the objectives of the law, providing a framework for consistent and effective enforcement.
  • Court-Ordered Disgorgement: In legal actions brought under unfair competition and false advertising laws, the court can now award disgorgement, adding a significant tool to the enforcement arsenal.

These provisions under AB 1366 empower public officials, especially the Attorney General, with enhanced tools and responsibilities to protect consumers. The law not only strengthens the ability to penalize wrongful business practices but also ensures that the victims of such practices are compensated.

The Victims of Consumer Fraud Restitution Fund

With AB 1366, California introduces a practical solution to a complex problem: the Victims of Consumer Fraud Restitution Fund. This initiative is a thoughtful response to the real-world issue of consumers left uncompensated by fraudulent businesses. The fund’s design reflects a commitment to practicality and fairness, aiming to directly address the financial aftermath of consumer fraud.

Establishment and Funding

  • Creation in the State Treasury: The fund is established within the California State Treasury.
  • Source of Funding: It is financed through disgorged profits from businesses found guilty of unfair competition or false advertising.
  • No Burden on Taxpayers: This funding mechanism ensures that the financial responsibility does not fall on taxpayers or law-abiding businesses.

The Fund’s Purpose

  • Compensation for Victims: The primary purpose of the fund is to provide full compensation to victims of consumer fraud.
  • Filling the Gap: It addresses the issue of victims being left uncompensated when fraudulent businesses become insolvent or collapse.
  • Allocation of Funds: The Attorney General’s office is responsible for allocating these funds to victims as part of restitution in consumer protection lawsuits.
  • Legislative Appropriation: The use of the fund for restitution is subject to appropriation by the California Legislature.

The implementation of the Victims of Consumer Fraud Restitution Fund under AB 1366 is a direct response to the needs of fraud victims in California. The fund provides a tangible means to address a critical gap in consumer protection. It promises real results, moving beyond policy discussions to deliver actual compensation to those affected by fraudulent business practices. This approach could serve as a practical reference point for future consumer protection initiatives.

Impact on Consumers and Businesses

AB 1366, with its innovative approach to consumer protection, has significant implications for both consumers and businesses in California, in terms of how the law benefits consumers and its potential impact on business practices and compliance.

How the Law Benefits Consumers

  • Enhanced Financial Protection: Consumers who fall victim to fraudulent business practices are now more likely to receive full financial restitution.
  • Increased Accountability: The law ensures that businesses engaging in deceptive practices are held accountable, deterring such behavior.
  • Restitution Assurance: The establishment of the Victims of Consumer Fraud Restitution Fund provides a reliable source for compensating victims, even when the offending business is insolvent.

Potential Implications for Business Practices and Compliance

  • Stricter Compliance Standards: Businesses in California may need to adopt more stringent compliance measures to avoid violating consumer protection laws.
  • Financial Consequences: The possibility of disgorgement of profits as a penalty for unlawful practices emphasizes the financial risks of non-compliance.
  • Reputational Considerations: The increased public and legal scrutiny could motivate businesses to prioritize ethical practices and transparency.
  • Preventive Measures: The law may encourage businesses to invest more in legal and ethical training for employees to prevent violations.

AB 1366’s enactment represents a balancing act between protecting consumer rights and ensuring fair business practices. For consumers, it offers a stronger safety net and a sense of security in their transactions. For businesses, it serves as a reminder of the importance of ethical conduct and compliance, potentially leading to a more trustworthy business environment in California.

The Lasting Impact of AB 1366 on California’s Consumer Landscape

AB 1366 represents a significant advancement in California’s consumer protection laws. Its enactment is a clear indication of California’s commitment to justice and fairness in the marketplace.

Reinforcing Consumer Confidence

  • Robust Protection: By providing a tangible means for restitution, AB 1366 strengthens the safety net for consumers, enhancing their confidence in the market.
  • Deterrent to Unfair Practices: The law serves as a strong deterrent against deceptive business practices, promoting a more ethical business environment.

Shaping Business Ethics

  • Encouraging Compliance: The law compels businesses to adhere to higher standards of honesty and transparency, fostering a culture of integrity.
  • Preventive Approach: The emphasis on disgorgement and restitution encourages businesses to proactively prevent unfair practices, rather than facing punitive consequences.

Final Thoughts

AB 1366’s focus on accountability and restitution, within the framework of consumer protection law, not only addresses past gaps in consumer protection but also sets a new standard for business conduct in the state. As AB 1366 takes effect, its practical impact in safeguarding consumers and guiding business ethics will be a significant indicator of its success, hopefully shaping a more equitable and responsible marketplace in California.

References and Further Reading



December 31, 2023